PREROGATIVELE MILITARE ALE BANILOR DE LUGOJ-CARANSEBEŞ ÎN SECOLELE XVI – XVII
THE MILITARY PREROGATIVES OF THE BANS OF LUGOJ AND CARANSEBEŞ IN THE XVIth- XVIIth CENTURIES
Universitatea de Vest „Vasile Goldiş” din Arad
Facultatea de Ştiinţe Umaniste, Politice şi Administrative
The most important institution of the Eastern Banat in the XVIth-XVIIth centuries is the institution of banat. The appointment of the bans of Lugoj and Caransebes represented, in most cases, the result of the decision and will of the princes of Ardeal but almost always the princes took into consideration the interests of the Romanian aristocracy of Banat, the rank of banat being owned in most cases by Romanian nobles of Banat of the families Barcsai, Bekes, Garlisteanu de Rudaria, Palatici de Ilidia, Vaida de Caransebes, Tompa.
There are situations when the same person holds the title of ban several times: Petru Petrovici of Suraklin (between 1548 and 1549; 1554-1557), George Berendy (1566; 1568-1569), George Palatici de Ilidia (1586-1588;1592-1594; May-June 1596), Paul Keresztessi de Nagy Magyer (1605-1606;1610-1613). Most bans kept their positions for a relatively short period (1-3 years), notable exceptions being represented by the last two bans of Lugoj and Caransebes, Paul Nagy of Deva (June1617-June 1644) and Acatiu Barcsai (December 1644-September 1658), who enjoyed the trust of princes Gabriel Bethlen, Gheorghe Rakoczy I and II.
The most important prerogatives of the bans of Lugoj and Caransebes, as the ones of the bans of Severin, were the military ones, Banat representing a buffer-area between the vilayet of Timisoara and the principality of Transylvania. Most bans proved military aptitudes before occupying this position. After being appointed in this position, the ban of Lugoj and Caransebes would obtain supreme military command upon the region. The ban can cumulate other important military functions, like Paul Nagy of Deva who held for more than 16 years (1627-1643) the position of captain of personal pedestrian guard of princes Gabriel Bethlen and Gheorghe Rakoczy I. Although he had in suborder a series of administrators of citadels and castellans with military attributions, the ban always initiated approaches for the fortification of the citadels of Banat (Caransebes, Lugoj, Jdioara, Mehadia), to obtain high quantities of armament and sufficient munitions and to maintain a high number of soldiers.
The bans of Lugoj and Caransebes proved real military qualities during the campaigns in which they participated. Thus, during the Anti-Ottoman war of 1593-1606, the bans Borbely of Sima and Andrei Barcsai became famous through the victories they obtained in 1595-1596 and 1598 against the Turks. The military role of the ban of Lugoj-Caransebes is comparable to the one of the great captain of Oradea, another important citadel from the strategic point of view, for the defense of Transylvania.
Key Words: bans, military, Banat, prerogatives, citadels
Cuvinte cheie: bani, military, Banat, prerogative, cetăţi