CÂMPIA DE VEST DIN JUDETUL ARAD – SPATIU DE LEGĂTURĂ ÎNTRE EUROPA DE SUD-EST ŞI EUROPA CENTRALĂ. PROFIL ISTORIC
THE WESTERN PLAIN FROM THE COUNTY ARAD – CONNECTING AREA BETWEEN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL EUROPE (HISTORICAL PROFILE)
Eugen D. PĂDUREAN
Complexul Muzeal Judeţean Arad
The statement that the entire Western Plain (including the area from the Arad county) was from prehistory a buffer space between South-Eastern Europe and Central Europe, thus an European space, is axiomatic. Remains only to underline the intensity of the phenomenons.
Archeological evidences show that the Western Plain – referring to the area from Arad county – was inhabited from Paleolithic (Musterian and early Aurignacian). The Epipaleolithic period is represented by the remains of a “workshop” found at Zabrani. The Neolithic is represented trough the Cris, Vinca-Turdas, Tisa I – II and Szakalhat cultures. Evidences show intercultural interferences between some of these cultures. Some even bring in discussion the posibility of a “Banat culture”. The Eneolithic is represented by the cultures Tisa III-IV, Baden and Cotofeni. In these cultures we have manifestations of prehistoric art (the “Dancer from Taut” – Tisa III, “Venus from Sanpetru German – Baden). The area was densely inhabited also in the Bronze Age (even for the Early Bronze Age, the Soimus cultural group), there are open settlements but also gigantic fortifications made out of earth and wood, such as the one from Santana. We know of several cultures such as Otomani (phase II-III), Mures, Cornesti- Crvenka. There are also cultural mixtures (Paulis cultural group), but also eastern influences (Wietenberg culture), manifestated trough imports and trade on Mures valley.
In the First Iron Age from archeological evidences we can see a continuity : numerous settlements especially on the Mures valley, but also in the utilization of the fortification from Santana. We can speak about the presence of the early Thracians. The Scythian presence is insignificant. Howewer, the Celtic presence is beyond discussion: we have numerous traces of them in the III-II centuryes BC (tombs). Archeologically, we can see a Dacian – Celtic at Cicir, Vladimirescu, with important consequences. During the classical period of the Dacian civilisation (I century BC – I century AD), the entire territory was integrated in the Dacian Kingdom. In this time there are open settlements but also oppida-like centers (Pecica – Santul Mare, the supposed Ziridava).
A part of the Western Plain from the Arad county was integrated in the Roman Empire (Dacia province). During the period of the Dacian wars, there have been numerous military operations (especially on the Mures valley, where there have been destroyed a series of Dacian fortifications). We link these military operations with the presence of a roman earth road located to the west of Lipova, wich could have facilitated the advance of Roman troops from Berzovia. At least the areas from the Plains located to the south of Mures, but also in the valley of Mures, firmly controlled by the Romans, where part of the Empire (see stamped bricks from Hodos-Bodrog, Bulci, Cladova but also funerary monument from Vladimirescu). In the same time, there where Dacian settlements on the Mures valley (Cicir, Neudorf), subordonated to the interest of the Roman Empire. For the period After the abandonment of Dacia province by the Romans, the area is densely populated by autochtonous elements, at this time, in a certain stage of Romanization, but also in a strong interference with the Sarmatian alogens (IV century AD).
Keywords: Western Plain; cultural and ethnic interference; connecting space; continuity; cohabitation
Cuvinte cheie: Câmpia de Vest, interferenţe culturale si entice, spaţiu de legătură, continuitate, convieţuire.